Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Pathogens Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Public Health Facilities in Belize


  • Viola Tuyud University of Belize
  • Thippi Thiagarajan University of Belize


Surgical site infections are amongst the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and cost due to increase in hospital stay. A study was conducted to understand antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major pathogens isolated from surgical site infections in Belize. A laboratory experiment was done to establish the antibiogram in pathogens. A retrospective study was conducted utilizing existing data captured through the Belize Health Information System, Ministry of Health. Raw data from 2009-2017, was compiled and arranged in an orderly manner and a detailed statistical analysis was carry out using SPSS and Microsoft-Excel. Descriptive analysis was conducted to extrapolate sensitivity patterns of isolates. From 630 samples only 50% (315) had pathogen growth. The number of cases reported was highest in 2013. A single pathogen was isolated from 93.3% of samples while multiple pathogens were isolated from 6.7% of samples. Out of the 341 cases where pathogens were isolated, the most common was Staphylococcus aureus (31.1%), followed by Escherichia coli (17.6%), Klebsiella spp (13.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.7%) and Enterobacter spp. (6.45%). Aerobic Gram negative bacteria accounted for 58.1%, while aerobic Gram positive bacteria accounted for 38.4%. Cesarean procedures accounted for the highest number of infections with 28.3% while the age group most affected was between 20 - 29 years of age. Staphylococcus aureus was more resistant to Erythromycin (62.1%) and Imipenem (60%), and less resistant to Vancomycin (5.4%) and Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxzole (8%). Escherichia coli was more resistant to Erythromycin (100%) and Tetracycline (68.2%) and less resistant to Imipenem (0%) and Amikacin (5.4%). Klebsiella spp was more resistant to Tetracycline (66.7%) and Trimethroprim/Sulphamethoxzole (62.5%) and less resistant to Imipenem (0%) and Amikacin (4.7%). The antimicrobial resistant patterns of many pathogens showed that more than 20% of all isolates were resistant to most antibiotics in all the years of the study with some isolates were seen multidrug resistant. More than 50% of all isolates during the study period showed resistance to erythromycin and more isolates were susceptible to Gentamycin.